ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ So you want to begin
ΚΚΚΚΚ ΚΚΚΚ A
ΚΚ LiteracyΚΚΚ Program
Ardis Dick Stenbakken
A Womenβs Ministries Resource
General Conference Department of Womenβs Ministries
So You Want to Begin a Literacy Program ........................................................................................ 1
Why Literacy Is Important for the Church.......................................................................................... 2
Why Literacy Is Important for Womenβs Ministries............................................................................. 4
Benefits to Women............................................................................................................................ 5
Obstacles for Women........................................................................................................................ 6
What Is Literacy?.............................................................................................................................. 7
Who Needs It?.................................................................................................................................. 8
How Adults Learn............................................................................................................................. 9
How to Begin.................................................................................................................................. 12
Writing Proposals............................................................................................................................ 16
For the Tutor .................................................................................................................................. 17
Teaching Without a Book................................................................................................................ 19
Post Literacy Programs.................................................................................................................... 20
What About Second Language Literacy?......................................................................................... 20
Literacy for the Future..................................................................................................................... 21
AΚΚ Resources ..................................................................................................................... 21
BΚΚ Some Country Literacy Statistics.................................................................................... 30
CΚΚ Budget Example............................................................................................................. 33
DΚΚ Checklist for Evaluating Proposals.................................................................................. 34
EΚΚ Why Should We . . . .......................................................................................................... ΚΚ
FΚΚ Big ideas (overhead)....................................................................................................... 36
GΚΚ Now try this (overhead)................................................................................................. 38
HΚΚ 12 Reasons for Womenβs Literacy Programs (overhead)................................................ 40
IΚΚΚ 10 Reasons for Womenβs Literacy Programs (handout)................................................... 41
JΚΚΚ Women and Literacy (overhead).................................................................................... 42
KΚΚ Before You Begin (overhead)........................................................................................ 43
LΚΚ Facts and Quotes about Literacy (handout)..................................................................... 44
NΚΚ Nine Benefits for Parents Who Read to Kids (overhead or handout)............................... 48
So You Want to Begin a Literacy Program
You are to be congratulated. You want to do something that can make a difference and fill a great need. But you probably also have a lot of questions about such a program. How does one begin and what materials do you use?
The purpose of this manual is to help you begin. It will not answer all the questions there are about every place in this world where there are literacy needs, but it will help you to begin to find what questions to ask, and help you find some answers.Κ The purpose is to help you understand enough to get the planning of a program started. There are a number of facts and figures included too so that you can present programs, motivating and getting others interested in joining in the project. There is also material to help you understand a bit more about adult educationχadults learn differently than do children.
The one thing that is not taught here is the actual language instruction. There is nothing about which letter of the alphabet to begin with and what to teach in each lesson. The reason: different languages necessitate appropriate adaptation. Some languages, of course, do not have a Roman or Latin alphabet at all, so teaching methods will be different.
May God bless you as you begin designing and planning a literacy program.
γThe days are coming,δ declares the Sovereign Lord,
γWhen I will send a famine through the land
not a famine of food or a thirst for water,
but a famine of hearing the words of the Lord.δ
Why Literacy Is Important for the Church
Christβs method alone will give true success in reaching the people. The Savior mingled with men as one who desired their good. He showed His sympathy for them, ministered to their needs, and won their confidence. Then He bade them, γFollow Me.δ ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚχE. G. White, Ministry of Healing, p. 143.ΚΚΚΚΚ
As we strive to witness for our Lord and to follow His example, we look around to find the needs of the people so that we too may minister, win their confidence, and invite them to follow the Savior. One of the most obvious needs for women in the world is the need for literacyχthe ability to read and write.Κ ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ
The facts and figures are staggering, but they also tell the story. The world population is just over 5.2 billion. The complete Bible is now available to 97% of these people in their mother tongue. Yet 45-55% of these people cannot read. Non-readers comprise the vast majority of the peoples yet to be reached with the Gospel.
The United Nations estimates
that in the world today, there are about one billion adults who cannot read or
write well enough to function or reach their basic goals in life. Many cannot
read anything at all. The UN furthers estimates that by the year 2000, 98% of
these will be in developing regions of the world. East Asian and South Asian
developing countries had 70% of the worldβs population of illiterates in 1990.
In 48 of 102 developing countries, the illiteracy rate exceeded 40%. UNESCO
reports that the
Literacy is important to the
church in two principal ways: as nurture of the members and as outreach. It is
obvious that unless a person can read with at least a minimal degree of
fluency, he or she cannot read the Bible. Or anything else that the church
produces. These persons cannot do any type of Bible study that requires reading
or writing. They cannot read Ellen White or any other devotional or
instructional material. If they are parents, they cannot read the
Those who have studied church
planting have discovered that in areas of the world where less than fifty
percent of the population is literate, teaching reading, particularly classes
based on the Bible, is one of the quickest ways of building up a church. In a
survey in the
For the church, the Word,
Jesus Incarnate, is supreme. But unless one knows how to read, accessing the
Word is difficult. It is important that Christians be able to study and confirm
their faith. Pastor Samson Phiri of
Non-readers are captive, prisoners of their handicap. As we carry out Christβs work, we too can say:
γThe Spirit of the Lord is on me,
because he has anointed me
to preach good news to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners
and recovery of sight for the blind
to release the oppressed,
to proclaim the year of the Lordβs favor.δ Isa. 61:1, 2 and Luke 4: 18, 19, NIV.
As we discover needs, it is
with satisfaction that we can develop plans to meet these needs. As Hector
Hammerly, Ph.D., of
In many parts of the world, literacy programs can use the Bible as an important part of the lesson and reading material. Each Womenβs Ministries group will need to assess the situation and use the Bible only if it is safe to do so. In some places using the Bible openly and immediately can endanger lives and shut down the literacy program. If there are no such conditions, however, the Bible is excellent to use.
There are other ways in which Bible literacy is important to the church:
1.Κ It gives church members a way to minister to others in a non-threatening way. It encourages both the tutor and the student to become daily Bible readers.
2.Κ The non-Christian will know the tutor cares about them because of the help they are receiving. They will be curious about why the tutor is so loving and kind; they will be more open to the Gospel.
3. It strengthens the existing church if church members learn to read. If the member cannot read they can easily be led into false doctrine. A Bible-reading church is a strong and growing church.
4. Literacy programs can build non-political cooperation with governments because almost all governments want their people to be able to read. It can strengthen community life as well when topics such as health, parenting, or sanitation are also addressed.
5. It is something that can be done right in the local church. One does not have to go a long ways to find people who need the help of a loving church.
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Why Literacy Is Important for Womenβs Ministries
Of the one billion adults who cannot read, the majority are women, somewhere around 650,000,000. Since writing began, women have had less access to reading and writing than men. It is still true today in many areas of the world (see Appendix B, page 30). In some countries the situation is becoming worse, however, rather than better. In fact, the number of illiterate women in the world will continue to grow until sometime in the next two decades when efforts to expand access to primary school can provide an education to most children. These women are a natural group for whom Womenβs Ministries can work and witness. When a woman learns to read, her whole family has a better chance of becoming literate. As reading is taught, these women can be introduced to material teaching Christian parenting, health, life style, and philosophy. γWhen you educate a man you simply educate an individual, but if you educate a woman you educate a family.δ
The majority of these women live in what Global Missions describes as the γ10-40 Window,δ or that part of the world ten degrees north and 40 degrees south of the equator, the focus of much of our Global Mission work. The bulk of these women are Muslim. Not only is this a difficult group of people with whom to work, but also it is almost impossible for a man to work with any of these women. Therefore, it is an important work that women can undertake.
Although Womenβs Ministries literacy programs will be run by women, it would be a disservice to exclude men who may also want to be involved, or to limit our classes just to women. Some studies show that both men and women learn better when both are involved in the classes. In other societies, women do not want to be in classes with men. The leaders in each area of the world will have to make their own decisions on this, but as much as possible, let us always be inclusive.
Benefits to Women
Some of the benefits to women from a literacy program include:
o lower birthrates (smaller families)
o with lower birthrates, the parents are better able to provide Christian education
o the children have improved educational abilities
o decrease in maternal mortality
o later marriages
o overall improvement in family health
o decrease in infant mortality
o a greater sense of personal self-worth
o an ability to read Scripture
o an ability to assume responsibility for personal spiritual choices
o an expanded influence in teaching children spiritual values
o an ability to become involved in the churchβs mission
o a greater possibility of becoming financially stable
o increased employment choices and productivity
o the ability to provide financial support to the church
o more involvement in community development
Studies in sub-Saharan Africa and Gambia show that increased agricultural productivity, mortality and child immunization rates correlate more closely to the literacy rate of the women than it does to the gross national product. Another study found that the motherβs schooling is a predictor for her childrenβs long-term nutritional wellbeing.
The motherβs ability to read
often determines the literacy level for the entire family. In
Literate women also understand more of what they hear regarding health and family planning and are able to communicate with health professionals better than women who are illiterate.
Some governments do not yet feel that education is of paramount importance for women. As a result, little has been done to fund or promote adult literacy programs for women. Before these governments promote female literacy, it will require pressure of people committed to large-scale social change.
Many women have a difficult time finding the time and energy for schooling even if given the opportunity. They also lack concentration because they must bring their young children with them to class. For this reason, when planning a literacy program, it might be beneficial to also plan a nursery or separate program for the children. Many lack the support of the men in the families; illiterate fathers or husbands may be unwilling to allow wives and daughters to participate.ΚΚΚ However, men often become more supportive when they discover that reading increases the womanβs earning power. The lack of relevant reading material in the mother tongue is often a discouragement to women too, especially for follow-up and enrichment materials. Many women are also embarrassed by their lack of education, so a program must be very non-threatening and supportive, respecting these women for what they do know and can do.
The literacy worker will have to plan the program so that the needs of the women are taken into consideration. For instance, a program could take place around where the women wash clothes. It might take place while they are doing sewing or some hand work in connection with their preparing food. The classes may have to be of shorter duration but more sessions. Workloads may be heavier at certain time of the year, such as planting or harvesting seasons.
There are numerous obstacles, but none that cannot be overcome if a program is well planned and designed.
They who teach others will,
Like the stars in the heavens, shine forever,
For they never know
Κwhere their influence will stop.
What Is Literacy?
Historically, a person was
considered literate if he or she could sign their name. Then in 1951, UNESCO
said that a person was literate if they could, with understanding, both read
and write a short, simple statement on his/her everyday life. In recent years,
Literacy and illiteracy are
NOT opposite poles, but a continuum.Κ In
order to be truly literate, a person needs to be able to function at whatever
goal level that individual has set. For instance, in a study of a literacy
In Adult Literacy Programs (1995), Comings, Smith and Shrestha say:
level of literacy skill that would be considered severely limited in rural
To be successful a literacy program should not be limited to only reading and writing. Literacy training should take a holistic approach, including speaking, listening, reading and writing.
Math literacy requires some of the same skills as reading and writing but requires its own separate skills as well. Students in a basic literacy program can be taught the number symbols
and helped to understand them
by counting objects and marks on paper (See Appendix P).
Who Needs It?
There are several groups you can serve. There are illiteratesχadults who cannot function at a standard level of reading or writing. There are those who need to improve their skill level to be able to get a better job. Many times these people are second language illiteratesχthey cannot read or write in the national language of government and commerce.
Womenβs Ministries, in some places, may also want to reach out to Pre-literatesχsmall children. In areas of poverty or where parents are not literate, very often children are educationally impoverished and some special help to them can help make sure they become literate. Another need area is for tutoring and helping children who are struggling with homework and keeping up with their classes. Local schools and teachers can help plan programs for these two groups.
Some people are illiterate, not because they never had the opportunity for school, but because of other problems such as hearing problems, vision problems, learning problems such as dyslexia, context deficiency, or being unable to work in a group situation. Others had to drop out for health reasons or to go to work to support the family. Others lack motivationχthey have felt they could function without education, but have now discovered that is not true. Some were not ready when they began school and so began a cycle of failure. Others lacked modeling; others did not try and received social passes; others came from migrant families and moved too often to receive an education.
In many countries, there is a national language and a number of local languages. For many, the question is what language should be used for the literacy program. Learning in a local language is easier for the student because the vocabulary is more familiar. It reinforces culture, history, identity and feeling of self-worth. Often reading and literacy materials in the local language are limited and will not benefit the student as much in commerce or employment. A national language can be a binding force that contributes to building national unity.
When planning literacy programs, it might be well to consider holding literacy programs in the prison system, as a very high percentage of prisoners are illiterate. One of the reasons many turn to crime is because of the failure cycle from illiteracy and the inability to hold a good job.
In many areas, especially in urban centers in developed countries, GED training programs may be more necessary than basic literacy.
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ How Adults Learn
There are four principle factors in adult education:
Hands on learning
Many adults feel embarrassed by the fact that they cannot read. If they are treated with condescension or like a child, they quickly drop out. The teacher must understand and model the fact that even though the illiterate adult may not be able to read, he or she is a very intelligent person who has other expertise and knowledge that even the teacher may lack.
Respect can be shown in many ways. One example would be for the teacher not to say γI am helping you learn to read,δ but that γI am helping you to improve your reading skills.δ
Teaching adults is very different from teaching children. For this reason, professional teachers are usually no better prepared to teach adult literacy than are others who receive literacy training. In poor societies, studies show that local poor (not those from the middle class) female teachers have been the most successful at encouraging participation in reading programs.
An adult comes to learn on her own free will. Many times these adults feel like failuresχmost of the world can read and they cannot. Perhaps they never had the opportunity, or this individual may have met with any number of roadblocks that have prevented her from learning. So encouraging, motivating and building self-confidence will be an important part of the tutorβs work. The teacher will want to help the student succeed right from the beginning, and in each and every lesson. The key to teaching someone to read is not so much in the techniques or the materials, but in an attitude of mutual cooperation and support between the tutor and the new reader.
Again, it is important to remember that adults who cannot read are not illiterate because they are stupid. Usually, adults who cannot read are very intelligentχthey have to be very smart to be able to get along in a reading world. They have to hear and remember everything; they cannot write themselves notes or look up information they may forget!
Adults want to learn quickly. They have full responsibilities already, often with full time work and family, so taking time for class and homework will require dedication and commitment.
Educators are coming to realize that we all learn more by doing than simply by hearing. As much as possible in a literacy program, have the student learning to read things she wants to read. Then have her actively involved in the class setting putting to use the things she has learned on material she has interest in. If you are teaching in a group setting, having students help each other will enhance their retention. Discussing what they have read helps, and follow up writing assignments enrich their learning further. Addressing topics of community or personal concern make this even more meaningful. You can also ask the students to illustrate material read, or have them read and demonstrate what they read about. For instance, women might demonstrate making a recipe they are learning to read.
The following shows instructional strategies and the average retention rate for various types of teaching (see also appendix O):
Instructional ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ΚΚΚΚAverage
ΚΚ StrategyΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Retention Rate
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ΚLectureΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 5%
ΚΚ ReadingΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 10%
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Audio VisualΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 20%
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ DemonstrationΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 30%
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Discussion GroupΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 50%
Practice GroupΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 75%
Teach others/Immediate Used LearningΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 90%
Here are some guidelines for teachers that will help with adult learners:
α Speak softly. Be courteous and respectful.
α Always encourage your student. Do not forget to praise her often for her good effort. Never become angry at her mistakes.
α Keep humble, showing honor to your student. Treat her as an equal; never appear superior
α Never laugh at mistakes or allow others to laugh. Donβt make the student work too hard, nor let her think she is learning too slowly.
α Love your student and tell her you are sure she can learn quickly. Make the study as happy and interesting as possible.
α When you are unable to teach, either find a substitute teacher or plan with your student well in advance to teach her at another time.
α Sit beside your student. Try to make her feel you are her equal, not superior. Try to be more like Jesus to her than anyone she has ever met.
At the beginning of the course, it is good to tell the students that they are expected to teach at least one other person to read as soon as they have learned to read. This will help the student realize that they are expected to succeed and that they are a worthy and capable person. It will also help to extend the program beyond the initial outreach.
How to Begin
Before you begin, it is important to understand what is required to have a successful program. Donβt become discouraged when you are already doing as well as might be expected. Plan for 100% success but donβt quit if you do not get it, because a successful literacy program has been defined by some as a program where about 50% of the participants acquire a level of literacy skill sufficient to use and retain over time. Because of the nature of adult education, some of the important elements in such a program are:
1. Timing and duration of instruction
2.Κ Instructional materials
3.Κ Teacher recruitment and training
4.Κ Participant motivation
5.Κ Supervision and monitoring
6.Κ Connection to other development activities
7.Κ Government/NGO (non-governmental organization) collaboration
8.Κ Post-literacy activities
For the average adult, 200 to 300 hours of instruction are needed to acquire a level of skill sufficient to use and retain over time. Some of this will depend also on whether it is one-on-one with a tutor or a class setting.
Basically, there are two types of literacy programs:
one in which a tutor meets privately with an individual student at a time and
place mutually agreed upon by the two of them. The class work centers around
that one studentβs interests and abilities. This type is probably most common
in places like the
So, what does one do to present enough hours and material for the student to attain a level of success? You must begin with research! It is imperative that you know exactly who your students will be, how many are illiterate, and whether they are totally illiterate or functionally literate.
The next step is to discover why these individuals are illiterate. What are the obstacles to changing the situation? Are there those who prefer that they remain illiterate? What resources are available to help overcome these obstacles?
You need to know the level of interest in your church. Have they been involved in literacy in the past? What were the results? Does the local church actively use the Bible and encourage its reading? What impact have other local religions had on literacy? Does your church understand the problem illiteracy causes for church and community?
You also need to research available reading material. What material is available from literacy groups or the government? How much material is available to read as supplementary or follow-up? Are the materials easy and inexpensive enough to acquire? Are the Scriptures, or portions, readily available in the local language?
Who is writing the reading material that you might use? What are they writing about? What perspective or ideology are they coming from? Does the material address local needs and can the local people identify with the material?
All of the answers to such questions will help you know what type of program you need to design. When you have done this, begin the actual planning (γbig ideas,δ Appendix F, lists other items that can also be addressed now or later in your planning process):
1.Κ Decide what the language of instruction will be. Should it be the local, indigenous language, the language of business and commerce, or a second language such as English.
2.Κ Find literacy materials. These can be obtained from literacy organizations, governments, or university and college systems. Because each area of the world is different, you must do this research on your own. Talk to your ADRA directorχhave they done literacy in that language? Contact your ministry of education or other non-governmental organizations, especially those involved in development or education. They may have money, materials, or advice.
If the vowel sounds of a language are regular (they are not in English) it is fairly easy to begin by teaching the vowel sounds and then introduce consonants as the student indicates what words she wants to learn to read. You might not even need a book for such a program. You can use all types of materials that are readily available for free: newspapers, government health and educational pamphlets, employment application forms, advertising. You can also use material such as simple and familiar songs and choruses. The repetition in them is excellent. (See γTeaching Without a Book,δ page 18.)
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Κ3. Recruit tutors. Probably these will be women from your local Womenβs Ministries group, or you may invite interested others to join you in your literacy project.
4. Find someone to train your tutors. The same sources who supply literacy materials are good possibilities. Talk again to the local university adult education department and your ADRA director for assistance.
5. Decide how you will recruit your students. Design an advertising program. Remember they cannot read advertising! Investigate how people in the society in which the illiterates live usually get information. Use every avenue you can discover.
6. Decide how you will test and place your students. If the literacy material you chose has a placement test, use it. If not, you can use interviews or develop a simple test yourself.
Questions you might ask to help place students would be:
α What things are you comfortable reading now? Do you read or write at work? At home? With your children?
α Please choose and try a few words or sentences from this literacy book (a basic level book).
α When you get stuck on a word when reading, what do you do?
α (If the student cannot read, ask) Have you ever tried to learn to read and write before? (If they have,) What did you like or dislike about the experience? Why did you stop? How would you do things differently now?
α Are you interesting in learning to read and write [or improving your skills?] Why? What makes learning to read and write difficult?
α How much time would you be able to spend each week in class?
α If you can sound out words in a sentence, do you usually understand what you have read?
α What are your hobbies or special interests?
α What are you good at?
α What would you like to learn to read?
7. Decide if you will charge the students anything. Some are poor and a fee will discourage them. Others are more likely to attend faithfully if they have something invested. You must research which will be best for those you are trying to reach.
8. Decide when and where you will have class. It must be safe and convenient for the students or they will not come.
9. Decide when you will meet and for how long. It is important, again, that the time be convenient for the students. How will the time slot you pick affect the rest of the studentβs family? If the wife is unable to prepare dinner or care for the children, she will not be allowed to attend. You may want to begin with a three or six month commitment and then reassess decisions made.
10. Plan for registration and record keeping: who will do it and how?
11. Budget. How much will the program cost and where is the money going to come from?
Many international literacy programs develop their own materials for specific indigenous languages. This is costly and usually takes about three years. Therefore, we recommend that if possible you use materials someone else has developed. If you must develop materials, you will need to apply for a government or NGO (non-governmental organization) grant or a program under the sponsorship of someone like Literacy and Evangelism International.
Groups such as this are often looking for local people with whom they can work in developing and running a program. They may supply the money, or most of it, and the expertise. The local group will provide the local people to give local information and language knowledge, to receive the training, and to carry out the program.
The next major cost for most programs is teacher salary. If you use Womenβs Ministries volunteers, it cuts down the total cost of the program greatly. Some governments and NGOβs will pay teacher salaries, but if you are working with them, this must be part of the proposal and plan.
Appendix B gives an example of a budget. It is important to figure everything possible into a budget and then try to cover as much as possible with volunteers and donated items, thus cutting your cost. But if you do not list everything, you are likely to forget important items that will cost you later. Every site and every situation will be different. Note the types of items listed on the sample budget to help you think of what to include.
The good news is that money is available. The bad news is that writing a proposal takes some time and effort. If you have not had experience writing proposals, you can ask your local ADRA director for help. Very often, ADRA can even help you get funding. In some areas of the world, the Office of Global Mission would also be a source of money.
Even if you do not want to apply for money, going over a proposal will help you to think of the various parts of a program that should be thought out anyway.
If you receive a grant, it often means more record keeping and reporting so that the sponsor will know whether or not their money was well spent. Attendance and progress reports will be important.
See Appendix D for a checklist for evaluating a proposal. This checklist will help you to know what types of information should go into a proposal as well as serve as a checklist. Funding organizations use similar checklists to evaluate proposals that are submitted to them.
As noted previously, it is impossible in a manual of this type to prepare a tutor to teach because of the differences in languages, but a few suggestions and ideas for the tutor can be helpful.
Once again, your relationship with your student is going to be the most important factor in your teaching. Even if you stumble with your words, forget a small point, or donβt do things in the exact order, your student will overlook and forgive if she or he knows you respect and care for them, if you have a good attitude toward them, and are doing your best to make their lives better.
According to one study of literacy programs, the most important teacher behavior is simply showing up for class. If materials are adequate and the teacher shows up for class on a regular basis and makes some attempt to teach, a completion rate of around 50% can be expected.Κ Children will continue to attend class even if the teacher is sporadic, but adults will not.
If the attendance is not what is expected or the drop-out rate high or early, it would be wise to spend some time or even money to find out what the reasons are and do what can be done to adjust the program to overcome these problems (see Appendix E).
For the most part, a program that teaches a whole language approach is the most successfulχit uses all three skills: phonetics, sight vocabulary and context, and should involve speaking, listening, reading and writing. Group participation in class in this way is important, especially for women who frequently have never spoken in front of a group before, or had anyone really listen to what they have to say. It also makes the learning more fun and helps build a stronger network among the women.
For most adults, learning to read and write takes a lot of time and effort, and after a few weeks of study, motivation can wane. For this reason, linking education to real problems and solutions, finding out why and what the student wants to read, can provide the additional motivation needed to stay with the program, and will then, of course, improve the quality of the participantβs life.
Before a literacy program begins, or in the first session with a student, it is important to talk about commitment. Either with the individual, or the group, discuss what the ground rules are regarding attendance, homework, effort, et cetera. You also need to commit to them that you will do your best to help them achieve their goals, will let them know if you canβt be there, that you will respect their needs, et cetera. It is good if you can have them commit to a minimum of three months of classes and then at the end of that period, set new goals.
A good literacy curriculum puts as much stress on comprehension as it does on oral reading. Participants must be encouraged to discuss the words, sentences, and stories. The teacher must continually question students about what they are reading and the student should be encouraged to write in response to the discussions and readings.
If possible, have nametags for each person, the teacher included, and the first class.Κ Have their names written on the tags in large manuscript letters. These names can be the basis for the first lesson and help everyone get to know each other and feel comfortable.
Many adults in
You will also want to give each student a folder. Ask them to write their name and address on their folder if they are that literate. If not, you can help them begin. Let them know that you expect them to keep all their written material in this folder; this also sends the message that you expect them to succeedχthey will be doing writing that is worth keeping. This will also help them in assessing their progress. Let them know that you will also be keeping a folder of homework and sample writings and other material relative to their progress.
Before you teach each lesson, be sure to read over the lesson you plan to teach and plan step by step how you are going to present each section. This will make the lesson move swiftly, and your student will learn more quickly.
Assign homework for your student after each lesson. This may include reviewing the lesson just taught and writing out the lesson sentences. When you assign homework, it is important that you always ask for it and check it over. It should be kept in your folder for that student.
Another technique that leads to mastery of literacy skills is for you to read to your students. If at the end of each session, you read to them an inspirational story or one that relates directly to their lives, perhaps bringing a new perspective or humor, several things will happen: they will gain better listening skills; reading aloud will be modeled for them; and it will increase their motivation.
Here are several other tested and tried suggestions:
α Say as little as possible.
α Never say, γNo, that is wrong,δ or γDonβt you know that?δ If you ask a question and there is no answer for several seconds, help your student to answer the question by herself. Only if necessary, tell it to her.
α Ask only questions your student should be able to answer. Do not ask the student what she has not yet been taught. With every right answer, she builds her confidence.
α Never ask the same exact question of your student twice.
α Do not repeat a word after your student when she has read it correctly. This may irritate an adult. Do not bore her by telling her what she already knows.
Your most effective teaching is going to be that which is student-centered. In other words, you are teaching the student what she wants to learn at that moment. She is in control of the learning and therefore more likely to work hard and succeed. Fortunately, this type of learning is also the most cost effective because you do not have to depend entirely on prepared literacy material. If prepared material is available, excellent, but never depend on it entirelyχwork as much as possible with what your student requests.
Suppose your student says she would like to be able to read a recipe. Ask which recipe she would like to begin with and have her bring it. Use words in the recipe to teach letter names, letter sounds, word patterns, phonics, and all the other parts of reading. Keeping in mind that literacy involves speaking, listening and writing also, you might have her tell a story about the recipe. Help her write it down and learn to read key words until she can read what she has written. A group might tell a story and write it, sharing ideas and even illustrating their writing.
Ruth Colvin, founder of Literacy Volunteers of America and a great friend of Womenβs Ministries literacy programs, has an excellent chapter, γTechniques for Teaching Reading/Writingδ in her book In the Beginning Was the Word. Many techniques for using experience writing (stories the student tells or writes) are also given in Tutor (see resources).
this story will probably be only three or four short sentencesχ
at this point, writing is hard work for them! Encourage ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ
them to spell the best they can and give them some help ifΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ townΚΚΚΚΚ well
they request it.Κ When they have finished, if they misspelled,ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ downΚ fell
just write the correct spelling above the word. Then use thisΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ gownΚΚΚΚ tell
story for your reading lesson.Κ Choose a word from this story. ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ crownΚΚ bell
Combine the consonants with the five different vowels toΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ frown ΚΚΚ hell
help them learn the letters. Show word patterns. For instance,
if the story is about the town well, you can use other letters
of the story to show how to form words. (See example
This type of work can be done in any language, any
interest group, with relatively no cost. You can see how
easily this would also lend itself to using the Bible as a text book, or even talking about Christianity. Again, Ruth Colvinβs book, In the Beginning Was the Word, gives excellent material on how to do this.
Post Literacy Programs
In societies in which there is not a lot of reading material available in the language used in the literacy program, students often feel lack of motivation. They learn to read, but unless they keep reading, they often forget what they have learned. The church can contribute much by supplying materials that a student can freely choose to read.
Most adults will retain what they learn in literacy classes, but much of the long-term success can depend on support after the basic program. Many rural villages have little reading material, if much material in the local language is available at all. Therefore, post-literacy is an important part of a literacy program. It is important for motivation, for consolidating literacy, and for preventing relapse into illiteracy. This is also an important part of the process of social change necessary to sustain womenβs participation. For the church, this is the ideal time to introduce materials on parenting, health education, life style issues and other topics that introduce Christianity and can easily lead to Bible studies. Womenβs Ministries is working with Family Ministries to develop a set of books on parenting on several reading levels that can be used as supplementary or post-literacy reading material.
What About Second Language Literacy?
In many countries, business, education, and commerce
are in a different language than the one a person grew up speaking. He or she
may be literate in the first language but now need to learn to read and write a
second language. Many times this is English, but certainly not always. For
instance, in much of
As Christians, we must be concerned with eradicating illiteracy. But we must also be concerned with preventing it. As a general rule, Seventh-day Adventists are well educated, compared to the general population, and advocates of education. But there may be illiterates in our midst who can be missedχwe need to do all we can in our churches to promote not only education, but also motivation and opportunity.
There are a number of things you and the church can do:
α Read to yourself
α Read to a child
α Read to a shut-in
α Create a literacy awareness in your congregation
α Find out about literacy programs in your area
α Assess what type of program is still needed.
α Make a financial contribution to a literacy program
α Set up a program
α Provide tutoring space in your church
α Become a tutor
α Direct a program
α Drive a student to class
α Provide baby sitting service during the tutoring session
α Give a gift of reading materials
α Get involved in your communityβs education system
α Be knowledgeable about your local board of education
α Advocate for equal education for all.
Appendix M contains an article about reading to your child. This could be the basis for something you share with parents in your church or with parents when they have finished a literacy course. You could also use it as a guideline for running a reading program for neighborhood children, either in a home or the church. This will help more children become better readers and not join the illiteracy statistics.
Resource agencies, organizations and materials change. You will need to check to see what agencies and materials are currently available. If you find other useful organizations and materials, if you will let us know at the General Conference, we will keep the division directors and literacy leaders informed.
Usually international and regional organizations, and often governments, provide these resources free of charge.
American Bible Society
Catalogues and materials available in both English and Spanish
Christian Literacy Associates
Phone: (412) 364-3777
German Foundation for International Development
International Reading Association
Public Information Office
Newark, DE 19714-8139, USA
Phone: (302) 731-1600ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Fax (302) 731-1057
E-mail: [email protected]
Laubach Literacy Action
Peter A Waite, Exec. Director
Literacy and Evangelism International
Phone: (918) 585-3826ΚΚΚΚ Fax: (918) 585-3224
e-mail: [email protected]
John C. Taylor, Executive Director
PREDE -- Program Regional de Desarrollo Educativo
Organizacion de Estados Americanos (OAS)
1889 F. Street NW
Washington, DC 20006 USA
7 Place de Fontenoy
Organizations in the
Conseil Regional pour l=Education des Adultes et l=Alphabetisation en Afrique (CREAA)
Service National d=Alphabetisation
Ministere de la Sante Publique et des Affaires Sociales
B. P. 1247
Organizations in the
African Association for Literacy and Adult Education
Phone: 254-2 22391 ΚΚ Fax: 254-2 340849
University of Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam, TANZANIA
Organizations in the Euro-Africa Division
German Adult Education Association (DVV)
Fachstelle fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit
Regional Centre for Functional Literacy in Rural Areas for the Arab States (ASFEC/UNESCO)
Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana
Organizations in the Inter-American Division
ACPO -- Accion Cultural Popular
Calle 20, No. 9-45
Alphalit International, Inc.
3026 NW 79th Avenue
Miami, FL 33122, USA
Phone: (305) 597-9077ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Fax: (305) 597-9078
CREFAL -- Centro Regional de Educacion Functional en Americana Latina
Federacion Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos (FIDEA)
Apartado Postal 20016
Caracas 102, VENEZUELA
Organizations in North American Division
Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy
International Council for Adult Education
Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc.
Phone: (315) 445-8000
Jinx Crouch, President
Sharon Darling, Pres.
Organizations in the South Pacific Division
Asian and South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE)
P O Box 1225
Canberra City, A.C.T. 2601
Dyslexia Learning Foundation
Stephen DeMent, Director
Organizations in the
Indian Adult Education Association
17-B Indraprastha Estate
Organizations in the Trans-European Division
Arab Literacy and Adult Education Organization (ARLO)
Organizations in the
UNESCO Regional Office for Education in
Organizations in the South American Division
Asociacion Latinoamericana de Educacion Radiofonica
This group is located in many countries and develops literacy material in the local vernacular. Please contact them directly. If, however, you desire a specific area that is not listed, you can write to Pat Kelley, International Literacy Coordinator, at their headquarters, as they do not list some countries because of the sensitive nature of their work in some areas.
E-mail: [email protected]
SIL Africa Group
Societe Int de Linguistique
SIL Ghana Group
PO Box TL 378
16131 N Vernon
Tucson, AZ 85739 USA
Inst Linguistico de Veran
70430 Mitla, Oaxaca
B P 10151
Papua New Guinea
PO Box 413
Ukarumpa, E.H.P. 444
Translation Advisory Group
Summer Institute of Linguistics
B P 1525
Summer Institute of Linguistics
P O Box 174
A New Language System for Instant Global Literacy
North American Division
12501 Old Columbia Pike
In the Beginning was the Word
By Ruth J. Colvin
Order through Literacy Volunteers of
Peace Corps Literacy Handbook
Information Collection and Exchange
A Collaborative Approach to Literacy Instruction
by Cheatham, Colvin and Laminack
Order through Literacy Volunteers of
Literacy Strategies for Adult Reading Tutors
Michigan Literacy, Inc.
c/o Library of
717 W. Allegan
P O. Box 30007
Lansing, MI 48909
Phone: (517) 373-4451
Literacy and Womenβs Lives in the Developing World
Available from Laubach Literacy International.Κ See address above.
Seeing for Yourself: Research Handbook for Girlsβ
by Eileen Kane
To order, please write to:
The World Bank
Phone: (202) 473-1155 ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Fax: (202) 676-0581
Supplementary and follow-up reading materials are available from New Readers Press Adult Education Catalog, New Readers Press, Department AS94, P O Box 888, Syracuse, New York 13210 (Phone: 1-800-448-8878) Call or write for current price lists.
The Childbearing YearΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 4
A Good BeginningΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 3-4
When A Baby is NewΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 2-3
As A Child GrowsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 2-3
Health related:ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 3-5
Staying WellΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ About AIDS
Getting FitΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ About Cancer
Getting Good Health CareΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Eating Right
Aging with ConfidenceΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ About Alcohol and Other Drugs
Managing StressΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ The safe, Self-Confident Child
You Can Give First AidΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 4-5
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Some Country Literacy Statistics
The following figures are for the percent of
population that cannot read. The statistics for men and women
over 25 are from The World's Women 2000, Trends and Statistics,
published by the United Nations. The total figures are taken from Asiaweek,
(For these statistics, UNESCO defines a literate person as someone who can, with understanding, both read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. A person who can write only figures, his or her name or a memorized ritual phrase is not considered literate.)
CountryΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ % Men over 25ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ % Women over 25ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Total ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ who cannot readΚ ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ΚΚΚwho cannot readΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ population
BelarusΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ .7ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 3.7ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ
BulgariaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 1.4ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 3.3ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ
CountryΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ % Men over 25ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ % Women over 25ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ TotalΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ who cannot readΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ who cannot readΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ population
United Rep. TanzaniaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ
ZambiaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 24.6ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 53.3
ZimbabweΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 16.7ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 32.8
Latin America and Caribbean
ArgentinaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 4.4ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 4.9
BoliviaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 15.7ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 36.5
BrazilΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 22.2ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 24.7
ChileΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 6.8ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 7.5
ColombiaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 11.1ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 11.7
EcuadorΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 12.5ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 18.6
El SalvadorΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 26.7ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 35.7
CountryΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ % Men over 25ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ % Women over 25ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ TotalΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ who cannot readΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ who cannot readΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ΚΚ population
JamaicaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 26.4ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 17.2
MexicoΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 12.7ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 20.4
PeruΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 10.4ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 27.6
Puerto RicoΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 11.4ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 11.6
ChinaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 17.3ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 42
IndonesiaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 15.8ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 33.5
IranΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 35.2ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 57.1
IraqΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 31.4ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 53.3
IsraelΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 3.7ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 9.2
JordanΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 14.7ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 40.7
NepalΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 58.9ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 89.2
PhilippinesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 7.2ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 8.7
SingaporeΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 6ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 21.5
Papua New GuineaΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Budget Example
Adult Education supervisor and trainer, part timeΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $12,000.00
Teachers, 3 (volunteers)ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 0.00
Teacher assistants, 2 (volunteers) ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 0.00
Janitor (volunteer)ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 0.00
Nursery attendant (volunteer)ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 0.00
Adult Basic Education MaterialsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $300.00
Supplementary books and reading materialsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $250.00
Paper and pencilsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $90.00
Janitorial suppliesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $25.00
Blackboard, chalk and erasersΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $45.00
Toys for Childrenβs nurseryΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $80.00
Bus fares for teachers and assistantsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $576.00
($1.00 each for 4 people, 4 times a week for 36 weeks)
Students (walk or ride public transportation at their
own expense)ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 0.00
3 classrooms, provided by the churchΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 0.00
Nursery, provided by churchΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 0.00
Utilities ($10.00 a month, for 9 months)ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $90.00
Fruit juice for children in nurseryΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $180.00
$10 per student x 12 studentsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $120.00
Radio announcements (public service)ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 0.00
Posters and fliersΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ $60.00
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Checklist for Evaluating Proposals
1.Κ Tells what the project is aboutΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Tells why the project is importantΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3.Κ Describes where the program will be implementedΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
4.Κ Describes the target populationΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
1.Κ Addresses funded interestsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Describes organizationβs qualifications, attributesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
Statement of Problem/Need for Services
1.Κ Clearly states the need for the proposed programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Describes geographic area to be servedΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3.Κ Describes the target populationΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
4.Κ Projects the number of participants/families to be servedΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
1.Κ Specify the outcomes for the programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Relate to the need for the programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3, Address all components of the programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
4.Κ Are measurableΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
5.Κ Indicate reasonable outcomes for this programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
1.Κ Clearly relates to the program objectivesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Addresses all components of the programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3.Κ Provides overview of site, staff, and resourcesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
4.Κ Describes plan for recruitment and selection of studentsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
5.Κ Describes an induction processΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
6.Κ Describes strategies for retention of enrolled familiesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
7.Κ Describes a process for planning exit from programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
8.Κ Describes instructional methodsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
9.Κ Provides start-up, termination dates for grantΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
1.Κ Describes staff positionsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Demonstrates that staff have adequate training and experienceΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3.Κ Demonstrates that consultants, volunteers have adequateΚ
training experienceΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
Site and Resources
1.Κ Describes program siteΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Shows that physical site is adequateΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3.Κ Verifies that site is available by start-up date for grantsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
4.Κ Provides full description of resources provided by grant(s)ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
5.Κ Provides full description of in-kind services, resourcesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
6.Κ Identifies sufficient resources to carry out the project planΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
1.Κ Addresses all the program objectivesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Uses appropriate measuresΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3.Κ Collects sufficient data to measure each outcomeΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
4.Κ Specifies format, target audience(s) for reportsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
1.Κ Conforms to guidelines for fundingΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Includes reasonable costs in relation to program objectivesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3.Κ Includes appropriate level of administrative costsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
4.Κ Documents in-kind contributionsΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
5.Κ Presents a full financial picture of the programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
Plan for Future Funding
1. Specifies a plan for securing funding after grant terminatesΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
2.Κ Identifies projected future funding sources for this programΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
3.Κ Describes coordinating among multiple funders (if applicable)ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ______
χAdapted from A Guide To Funding Sources For Family Literacy by the National Center for Family Literacy.
Why Should we . . .
What kind of people are we?Κ We are poor, very poor but we are not stupid.Κ That is why, despite our illiteracy, we still exist.Κ But we have to know why we should become literate.
We joined the literacy classes before, but after some time, we got wise.Κ We felt cheated.Κ So we left the classes.Κ What they taught us was useless.Κ To sign oneβs name means nothing.Κ Or to read a few words means nothing.Κ
We agree to join the classes if you teach us how not to depend on others anymore.Κ We should be able to read simple books, keep our accounts, write a letter and read and understand newspapers.
One more thing.Κ Why do our teachers feel so superior?Κ They behave as if we are ignorant fools, as if we are little children.Κ We are not empty pitchers.Κ We have minds of our own.Κ We can reason out things, and, believe it or not, we also have dignity.
Can literacy help us live a little better? Starve a little less?Κ Would it guarantee that the mother and daughter wonβt have to share the same sari between them?Κ Would it fetch us a newly thatched roof over our heads?
They say that there are laws to protect and benefit us.Κ We donβt know these laws.Κ We are kept in the dark.Κ Would literacy help us know these laws?Κ Would we know the laws that have changed the status of women?Κ And the laws that protect the tribal groups among us?
We want a straight answer.Κ Then we shall decide whether we should become literate or not.Κ but if we find out that we are being duped again with empty promises, we will stay away from you.
Quoted in Morsy (1994 p.16).
APPENDIX F (overhead)
OΚΚΚΚΚ Have an interested contact/leader
OΚΚΚΚΚ Establish language for instruction
OΚΚΚΚΚ Determine source of materials
OΚΚΚΚΚ Budget: plan and stay within it
OΚΚΚΚΚ Target population: gender, number
OΚΚΚΚΚ Applicants screening, contract, ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ payment
OΚΚΚΚΚ Time: frequency and length of course
OΚΚΚΚΚ Tutor qualifications and training
OΚΚΚΚΚ Where to have course
OΚΚΚΚΚ Equipment: desks, chairs, ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ and blackboards, copying equipment
OΚΚΚΚΚ Support materials: books, pencils, ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ paper, etc.
OΚΚΚΚΚ Desired outcome
OΚΚΚΚΚ Social issues that can be incorporated
OΚΚΚΚΚ Diagnostic materials
OΚΚΚΚΚ Graduation plans
OΚΚΚΚΚ Follow-up courses and plans
OΚΚΚΚΚ Media coverage: denominational and secular
OΚΚΚΚΚ Government support: desired? ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Funding? Training? Materials?
APPENDIX G (overhead)
Now try this:
How to get involved: What you and the church can do:
α Read to yourself.
α Read to a child.
α Read to a shut-in.
α Create a literacy awareness in your congregation.
α Find out about literacy programs in your area.
α Assess what type of program is still needed.
α Make a financial contribution to a literacy program.
α Set up a program.
α Provide tutoring space in your church.
α Become a tutor.
α Direct a program.
α Drive a student to class.
α Provide baby sitting service during the tutoring session.
α Give a gift for reading materials.
α Get involved in your communityβs education system.
α Be knowledgeable about your local board of education.
α Advocate for equal education for all.
APPENDIX H (overhead)
1.Κ Have fewer children
2.Κ Marry later
3.Κ Decrease in maternal mortality
4.Κ Improvements in family health
5.Κ Decrease in infant mortality
6.Κ Greater sense of personal self-worth
7.Κ Earning capacity and productivity increase
8.Κ More ability to provide financially to the church
9.Κ Children do better in school
10.Κ Ability to read the Bible
11.Κ Can better influence childrenβs spiritual values
12.Κ More involved in the churchβs mission
APPENDIX I (Handout)
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ 10 Reasons for Womenβs Literacy Programs
The World Bank calls education of women and girls γOne of the best investments a country can make in its future growth and welfare.δΚ The same can be said for the church.
1. The education of women has a positive effect on family income and national productivity. Womenβs earning capacity and productivity increase with higher levels of education.
2. Improvements in female literacy correlate with the adoption of advanced agriculture practices, which contribute to increased yields and better storage, processing, marketing, and food security. This would lead to an increase in tithes and offerings in much of the world.
3. Educated women use resources and skills training, in every sector from health to horticulture, more efficiently, thus raising the investment value of government donor expenditures. Educated women can and do use government/church investments in health, family planning and education services more efficiently. They are more likely to bring about social change.
4. Primary education opens the way to further education or vocational training in areas such as agriculture and health services, thereby increasing opportunities to find employment. Makes women tithe payers. Imagine our schools and offices without women.
5. The better educated the mother; the more likely her child is to survive infancy. The children of educated mothers are better nourished and healthier. Saves money for the family and contributes to the church. Able to read prescriptions, warnings, nutrition information, et cetera.
6. The children of educated mothers are more likely to succeed in school, more so than if only the father is educated. Their daughters are more likely to attend school, do well and graduate. It is almost impossible to conceive of the children of an educated mother being illiterate. γIf you educate a man you simply educate an individual, but if you educate a woman you educate a family.δ CJ. E. Kwewgyir Aggrey, Ghanian educator, 1875-1927.
7. Educated women tend to marry later. Later marriage usually improves the womanβs health in childbearing.
8. Are more likely to plan their families and have fewer children. Gives access to the Bible and religious literature. Fewer children means that the family will better be able to give them a Christian education.
9. The whole family will have greater access to the Bible and religious literature.
10. The woman will better be able to witness. This will lead to church growth.
APPENDIXΚ J (Overhead)
of more than one billion adult
illiterates who have no access to
The majority live in rural areas.
APPENDIXΚ K (Overhead)
Before we begin any major literacy program in a community, we must do research. We need to understand how large the illiteracy problem is, what its root causes are, what the barriers are, what the resources are, why people want to learn, and what they expect to read and write.
α WHO, AND HOW MANY?
α WHO IS WILLING TO TEACH
α CAUSES OF ILLITERACY
α OBSTACLES AND RESOURCES
α PAST AND PRESENT LITERACY TRAINING
α THE CHURCH
α THE MOTIVATION TO LEARN
α AVAILABLE READING MATERIAL
α HOW ADULTS LEARN
α WHO CAN TRAIN TUTORS
APPENDIXΚ L (Handout)
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ Facts and Quotes about Literacy
o 905 million men and women, almost a quarter of the worldβs adult population, are illiterate. C1993 World Education Report
o About 650 million women are illiterate.
o γYears of neglect have left very high illiteracy rates among adult, especially rural, women in most developing countries. High gaps also exist in womenβs educational achievements. Women and girls in both developed and developing countries still do not have equal access to education and training resources. United Nations, Focus on Women, γLiteracy: A Key to Womenβs Empowerment.δ
o In some South Asian and African countries, the illiteracy rate for adult women is over 80%. Among women aged 25 years and above, illiteracy rates are 93.4% in Nepal, 89.2% in Pakistan, 98.3% in Burkina Faso, 91% in Mali and 90.4% in Togo. χThe Worldβs Women 1995: Trends and Statistics.
o Of the 191,000,000 adults in the United States, 21 - 23%, or some 40 to 44 million, cannot manage a checking account, fill out a job application, read street signs, or read to their children. Twenty percent of those with the worst literacy skills have high school diplomas.
o Illiteracy in rural areas continues to be high in most regions, even in countries where urban women have made significant progress. This is sharpest in Latin America where the rural illiteracy rate among women aged 15-24 is 25% compared with 5% in urban areas. In Asia and the Pacific, rural rates are double urban rates (43% compared with 22%), and in Africa three quarters of rural women aged 15-24 are illiterate, compared with less than half in urban areas.
ΚΚΚΚΚΚ χUnited Nations, Focus on Women, γLiteracy: A Key to Womenβs Empowerment.δ
o In the United States, one in five parents cannot read a bedtime story or Sabbath School lesson to their children.
o Where 50% or more of the adult population cannot read, teaching literacy is the best way to plant churches.
o In the US, 70% of todayβs jobs require a ninth grade reading level. By the year 2000, most jobs will require at least two years of college education.
o All during her husbandβs years as US Vice President and President, Barbara Bush pushed for literacy. The fight against illiteracy began years before when she discovered that her third son, Neil, couldnβt read. After many years of special tutoring, he managed to overcome a severe reading disability. This left a lasting impression on his mother. When George Bush decided to run for President, she said, γI spent a whole summer thinking about what would help the most people possible. And it suddenly occurred to me that everything I worry aboutχthings like teen-age pregnancies, the breakup of families, drugs, AIDS, the homelessχeverything would be better if more people could read, write, and understand.δΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ
The following information is from the article, γSeventeen Reasons You Should Read to a Childδ by Patricia A. Habada, Ph. D, Assistant Director of Sabbath School and Personal Ministries Department at the General Conference, and editor of the childrenβs Sabbath School lessons.Κ She was the senior editor of the SDA Life Series Reading textbooks used in Adventist elementary schools in North America. The article appeared in the Adventist Review, June 30, 1994.
Reading is the one major skill upon which all other learning is based.Κ If you can help your children develop strong reading skills, they will likely succeed in most other areas of learning. And you can help them! How? It can be as simple as reading aloud. Just minutes a day will make a difference in abilities. Here are a few suggestions to get you started. You will think of more as you go along.
1. The earlier you start, the better. Jill Hauser, author of Learning and Loving to Read, 1 says that an infant is reading at that magical moment when it first responds to a parentβs smile. Important meaning is found in that smile, and thatβs what reading is all aboutχdiscovering meaning. Itβs never too early or too late to begin.
As you read to young children, point to the picture or move your finger under the words. They will soon learn that pictures tell a story, that words tell about pictures, that sentences (in many languages) are read from left to right, and that pages are read from top to bottom.
2. Time means love. Set aside a regular block of time to read aloud. Avoid times when your child has obligations such as homework or wants to watch a favorite TV program. Make a commitment and stay with it. If necessary, turn down other appointments. Think about the positive message that will send to your child!
3. Listening shows commitment. There will be times when your child wants to share or talk about a book he or she has read. You canβt always drop everything, but when you can, do. When you must postpone the request, explain why, commit to a time later in the day, and keep your commitment. The younger the child, the sooner that time should be.
4. Selecting books teaches values. Listen to your children and discover their interests. Adventure stories? Space? Flight? Pioneers? Horses? You may like γhow-toδ books, but they may want to read about cowboys.
As children grow older, involve them in selecting books. Introduce them to the library and make regular visits together. In the United States, for example, you can introduce them to those books that receive the annual Newberry Award for story excellence and the Caldecott Award for excellence in illustrations.
Not all these books will appeal to your children, and not all are books you will want them to read. But you can introduce them to a better quality of literature as you determine criteria together, and they will be better prepared to make their own selections in the future.
5. Discover your childβs ability to understand. For example, if your child wants to learn more about space exploration, use materials he or she can comprehend. Younger children will learn more from books with pictures. Knowing that a man traveled to the moon may be enough to satisfy a beginner. How he got there will interest older readers.
6. Assess your childβs reading level. Start where the child is. How do you find out? Ask your child to read a page aloud. If you hear five or more mistakes, the book is probably too difficult. But if the subject holds the childβs interest, donβt deny the opportunity to learn. This is probably one of those books that you should read aloud to your child.
7. A good environment sets the stage. Have plenty of eye appealing books and magazines in your home; some for you, some for your child. Choose a place where you will read together; a favorite chair, propped up on your childβs bed, the porch swing, wherever.
Provide a bookcase that will be the childβs own and encourage him or her to store favorites there. Itβs also a good place to keep those library books so you can find them easily when itβs time to return them!
When youβre ready to read aloud, eliminate distractions. Turn off the TV or radio, and avoid times when friends or family members are likely to make demands of your time.
8. Practice your own skills. When you read aloud, use voice inflection and tone that will make the story come to life. Share the humor, the pathos, and the anxiety. Put some drama into your voice.
9. Make room for laughter. Share jokes, nonsense rhymes, funny stories, puns, and words with silly sounds. Read aloud stories or examples of humor that appeal to children.
10. Keep Ξem dangling. Start a book to arouse the childβs interest, and then stop while interest is high. This lets a child ask for more. Older children may ask for the book so they can finish reading it for themselves.
11. Accept your childβs pace. Donβt overdo it. Five or 10 minutes is enough at first. The younger the child, the shorter the attentions span. You want the child to ask for more, not beg you to stop.
12. Teach your child how to find information. When kids ask tough questions about a topic in the book be truthful. γI donβt know, but I can help you find outδ lets you lead them to the other books to find answers.
13. Expand the imagination. Begin reading a story, but stop before the end. Ask the child to imagine what might happen. After you have speculated together, read the rest of the story aloud, or better yet, let the child read the rest of the story, if able to do so, and share the ending with you.
14. Share the fun with others. ΚKids love to hear themselves talk. Tape-record them reading a story, and send the tape to a grandparent or friend.
15. Seek a response and enlarge a childβs horizon. Get a response from your child. Educators call it a comprehension check. Have the child act out part of the story. On other days draw a picture, summarize ideas, or review information.
Encourage children to read favorite books and stories to a younger sibling or to share their new knowledge with older persons.
16. Nurture a budding reporter. After a trip to the zoo, a visit to the park, a sled ride on a snowy day, encourage your child to talk and write about it. Younger children can dictate their story to you; a sentence or two is sufficient. Invite them to illustrate it with a picture, then read it to someone; e.g. a grandparent, a neighbor, an elderly friend, a cousin, etc. The refrigerator door is still a good place to display your childβs craft.
17. Give the gift of approval. When your child shares a reading (or any other) experience, listen carefully and respond positively. Your child wants to please you. Your approval is a major source of encouragement.
Written by Patricia A. Habada, Ph.D. Used by permission of the author.
APPENDIX N (Overhead or handout)
ΚΚΚΚ NINE BENEFITS FOR PARENTS
1.ΚΚΚΚΚ Creates a bonding experience.
2.ΚΚΚΚΚ Allows you to observe and share in your childβs interests.
3. ΚΚΚΚ Demonstrates your commitment to your child.
4. ΚΚΚΚ Provides an opportunity to model and transmit values.
5. ΚΚΚΚ Develops good communication skills.
6. ΚΚΚΚ Provides bibliotherapy.*
7. ΚΚΚΚ Gives children a chance to ask you questions.
8. ΚΚΚΚ Combats a passive, couch potato, TV-viewing lifestyle.
9.ΚΚΚΚΚ Helps you build a storehouse of pleasant memoriesΚΚΚΚΚ with your children.
*Using stories and books to help children deal with traumatic events such as death, divorce, loss of a pet, and adjusting to life-changing situations such as moving and entering school.
C γSeventeen Reasons You Should Read to a Child," Adventist Review, June 30, 1994.
Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile
When people say, γIf I see it, Iβll remember it,δ or γI have to write it down or Iβll forget it,δ they are indicating their perceptual learning style.Κ We all use all four styles (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile), but some have a favorite.
Visual learners often:
Implications for tutoring:
Use written instructions and examples, not just oral ones. Use pictures and diagrams.
Auditory learners often:
Implications for tutoring:
Use tapes, discussions, and oral presentations.Κ Encourage the student to read aloud, think aloud, and spell aloud.Κ Use phonics.Κ Ask questions about the meaning of text the student reads.
Kinesthetic and Tactile Learners often:
Implications for tutoring:
Use writing or typing to answer questions and review words.Κ Act out stories or move objects to aid in comprehension.Κ γWriteδ on the table with a finger.Κ Tap out syllables.
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ χGordon Buhler
Specification of Norms for Literacy Attainment
(1) Reading Skills
The learner should, at the end of the program, he able to read orallyχpronouncing correctly a simple passage of about five or six sentences in a minute.Κ Such a passage may be from the reading material, used at the center and should be the same letter type.
The learner should be able to read approximately ten to twenty words, of hand-written (bold) material, per minute.
The learner should be able to read with understanding road signs, posters, simple instructions and some headlines of news papers for neo-literates.
The learner should be able to read figures from 1 to 100.
The learner should be able to comprehend the material read in the above items, and should be able to answer questions relating to it.
(2) Writing Skills
The learner should be able to copy out a minimum of ten words per minute from a small passage.Κ The words in the passage may be of mot more than four letters.Κ They should also be able to understand what is written.
The learner should be able to take down dictation at the speed of at least seven words per minute.
The learner should be able to write on a straight line with proper spacing on ruled paper.
(3) Computational Skills
The learner should be able to make minor calculations of up to three digit figures involving simple addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; the divisor in case of division and multiplier in the case of multiplication should be one digit.
At the end of the course the learner should be in a position to gain a practical knowledge of metric weights and measures.
The learner should be able to know multiplication tables up to ten.
(4) Application of Literacy Skills
The learner should be able to read captions, signboards (written road signs), posters, newspaper headlines and other communications that come to him in legible and bold handwritten papers.
The learner should write simple letters and simple applications, and fill out forms such as money orders or loan applications.
The learner should be able to keep accounts of the day-to-day expenditure and savings, and be able to check entries in their bank statements or pass books.
The learner should be able to follow and act upon instructions given on bags of fertilizer, medicine, seeds, pesticides, etc.
ΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚΚ χGordon Buhler
 The Teaching of Literacy and ESL/EFL As Outreach Ministries, manuscript.
 γAdult Literacy Programs, Design, Implementation and Evaluation,δ John P. Comings, Cristine Smith and Chij K. Shrestha, 1995, manuscript draft.
 Adapted from Teaching Guide, Literacy and Evangelism International, 1993.